Heroku recently sent me a nice email:
You have one or more applications deployed to Heroku’s Bamboo stack. Bamboo went live almost four years ago, and the time has come for us to retire it.
You may have received a previous message about Bamboo deprecation. That message may have had an erroneous app list, but this email has the correct list of Bamboo apps that you own or are collaborated on. We’re sorry for any confusion.
On June 16th 2015, one year from now, we will shut down the Bamboo stack. The following app/apps you own currently use the Bamboo stack and must be migrated:
This is on the heels of an email about ending legacy routing support. It seems they have been quite busy over at Heroku, but I can’t complain too seriously about free app hosting.
Upgrading a legacy Rails application to the Cedar stack did require a few changes. I’ll document some stumbling blocks for posterity.
The first big change described in the general purpose upgrading article from Heroku: https://devcenter.heroku.com/articles/cedar-migration was the use of foreman to manage your web services. I luckily have a simple app, and did not need to worry about resque, mailers, etc. This made my Procfile rather straightforward:
web: bundle exec unicorn -p $PORT -E $RACK_ENV -c config/unicorn.rb
Absent from the foreman crash course is any information about the corresponding
.env file. I did need to add a few environmental variables to keep on working in development as usual:
Once the Procfile was committed (end the .env) file added to .gitignore I then added Unicorn to the gemfile. I’m not sure if Unicorn is strictly necessary over webrick in development, however this is the example in the Cedar upgrade guide, so I wanted to run as close to production as practical to prevent any surprises.
After installing Unicorn, I then needed to touch
config/unicorn.rb since it did not exist. Against, its in the example, but I’m not sure if its strictly necessary especially given that its just an empty file for me. To start your Rails application, you now issue
foreman instead of of the older
Not directly related to the Cedar changes, but a common gem, so worth mentioning. Devise 2.x has removed migration helpers. I stupidly didn’t lock my version of Devise in my Gemfile so I was confused why this was failing for me. I found the last 1.x version of Devise by running this command:
gem list devise --remote --all, and the specifying ‘1.5.3’ as the second argument in my Gemfile on the devise entry.
Heroku requires Postgres in production and I was previously using sqlite in my development environment. Again, to mirror production I wanted to use Postgres my development environment so that I could be as close to production setup as practical. I took a quick trip down memory lane to setup and configure PostgreSQL on my Linux development machine: https://mrfrosti.com/2011/11/postgresql-for-ruby-on-rails-on-ubuntu/ . An interesting observation is that in Ubuntu 14.04 LTS, PostgreSQL runs on port 5433, and not the default 5432. This can be verified with
netstat -nlp | grep 5432. If no entries come back, PostgreSQL is running on a non-default port. Try to grep for 5433, or other numbers until you find the process.
Backing up your database
Before I made any server changes, I wanted to have an up to date copy of the production databse on my machine to prepare for the worst. This can be done by using the pgbackup commands:
heroku pgbackups:capture //create a backup
heroku pgbacksup:url //make a public URL for that backup
Then I clicked the public URL and downloaded the file – safe and sound to my computer. By the way, you can import this production database into your local instance of PostgreSQL using the following command:
pg_restore --verbose --clean --no-acl --no-owner -d development /path/to/database
Pre-provisioning your database
A quick note on database availability. I got into a chicken and the egg scenario where the app wouldn’t deploy without the database, and the database seemingly couldn’t be created without the app first being deployed. Heroku has an article on pre provisioning and I found it a necessary prerequisite to deploying to my newly created test Cedar stack: https://devcenter.heroku.com/articles/pre-provision-database
To pre-provision your database, run the following:
heroku addons:add heroku-postgresql
You can even import the database from production, etc as part of the heroku utility. I used the public database URL I created above to populate my new cedar stack database:
Migrating to Cedar
Once I had tested on a new app, and in a feature branch I had confidence everything was working as expected. I was ready to make my changes to the production app by migrating it to Cedar. To do this, the command is:
heroku stack:migrate cedar
I either have an old version of the Heroku gem, or this is a discrepency in the gem and the non-gem packaging, but the docs misidentify this command as:
heroku set:stack cedar which was not a valid command for me. The migrate command above appears to be analagous.
Once I merged my cedar feature branch back into master I was ready to push to master. And FAIL. It turns out that I needed to precompile my assets, which had a dependency on the database existing. I tried to pre-provision as I had done on my cedar branch, however the results were the same after running this command.
A quick search yielded https://devcenter.heroku.com/articles/rails-asset-pipeline#troubleshooting the advise to add the following line in the
config.assets.initialize_on_precompile = false
I’ve learned quite a bit about Heroku in this upgrade experience. Their changes force me to use the latest software which is nice in some ways. When everything is running on my website, I don’t often worry about upgrading until I get an email like the one above.
The downside of course is that this upgrade process is a pain in the ass, and is error prone, and affects production websites that are running smoothly. If it isn’t broken, you don’t want to fix it. Except this time you have to in order to have it continue to function after June, 2015.
Best of luck to other people upgrading. Just be patient, and test everything in a new app if you have any doubts.