Today, I found myself needing to setup a Rails application to work with the PostgreSQL database. I found that the documentation on the PostgreSQL website was like drinking from a fire hose. Worse was every community response for an error message has a slightly different approach to the solution. Lets run through a basic Rails PostgreSQL configuration assuming Rails 3, Postgres 8.x, and Ubuntu 11.04:
Step 1: Installing PostgreSQL and Libraries
Install the PostgresSQL server, the client package to connect (psql), and the pg library needed to compile the Ruby PostgreSQL driver:
$ sudo apt-get install postgresql postgresql-client libpq-dev
After this finishes installing, you can turn to your OS X co-worker and laugh at him while he is still downloading the first tarball file. PostgreSQL will start automatically, under the user postgres. You can verify that the installation is a success by using the psql command line utility to connect as the user postgres. This can be accomplished using the following command:
$ sudo -u postgres psql
This uses sudo to elevate your basic user privileges, and the “-u” switch will execute the following command as an alternate user. As the postgres user, this will run psql. If you connect successfully, you should be at the psql interactive prompt. If not, ensure PostgreSQL is running, and that psql is in the path for postgres.
Note: From the psql interactive prompt, type “\q” to exit.
Step 2: Configure a New PostgreSQL database
From the psql prompt, you can run SQL to view the current PostgreSQL users:
SELECT * FROM pg_user;
You should see a table of database users returned:
We can see the postgres user that was created automatically during the installation of PostgreSQL. Lets add another user to be an owner for our Rails database. The path of least resistance may be to use your shell account username, since it will keep us from having to change some options in the database configuration file.
$ sudo -u postgres createuser <username> # Shall the NEW ROLE be a superuser? (y/n) n # Shall the NEW ROLE be allowed TO CREATE DATABASES? (y/n) y # Shall the NEW ROLE be allowed TO CREATE more NEW roles? (y/n) n
This will create a new database user (named your shell account name), and grant that user access to login to the database. This will ask you a few questions regarding the user account. It is important for Rails that you answer “y” to whether the user should be able to create databases. If you say no, you will not be able to run any rake tasks that create or drop the database.
We can confirm by selecting from the pg_user table again.
$ sudo -u postgres psql
SELECT * FROM pg_user;
Step 3: Configure Rails
Switching to the Rails side, lets configure our application for Postgres. This requires the pg gem. Open your Gemfile and append:
# Gemfile gem "pg"
Now run bundle install to update your project gems.
$ bundle install
This should compile the Ruby pg database driver, allowing Ruby to talk to Postgres. Now, lets tell our Rails application how to access our database. Open up config/database.yml, and change the adapter line to read “postgresql”. The database name by convention is the name of your project plus “_development”. Finally, your shell username is needed. Because PostgreSQL will authenticate this account locally, you will not need to supply a password option. Delete this line.
# config/database.yml development: adapter: postgresql encoding: unicode database: <app_name>_development pool: 5 username: <username>
To test, run the rake task to create your database:
If everything works, you should have a newly created database owned by your shell account. You can login using psql by passing the name of the database as an option:
$ psql -d <app_name>_development
If you get the error: “FATAL: Ident authentication failed for user “, ensure that you can see your newly created account in the pg_user table of the postgres database. (See Step 2 above)
If you get the error: “PGError: ERROR: permission denied to create database”, then ensure that your database user account has been granted the privilege CREATE. This can be done during the “createuser” command line account creation by answering “y” to the corresponding question about this permission.
If you get the error: “FATAL: role is not permitted to log in”, try manually granting the privilege to login on your database user account. This can be done by executing the following as postgres in the psql prompt:
ALTER ROLE <username> LOGIN;
Notes on Alternative Authentications
PostgreSQL integrates very deeply into the Linux authentication world, allowing for quite an array of connection options. By default passwords are not accepted for local connections. Instead, PostgreSQL is configured to use the “ident sameuser” method of user authentication. See more at http://www.postgresql.org/docs/8.4/static/auth-pg-hba-conf.html.